According to basic principles of Ayurveda a human body is not just the physical part which can be seen, touched and felt but combination of senses, mind, body and soul, Ayurveda does not focus on physical health only it is for sound mental, spiritual, physical and social health of an individual. Ayurveda means 'knowledge of life' this clearly suggests the basic principle of Ayurveda, it is traditional health care system for leading a healthy life not restricted to only a healthy body but establishes a healthy relationship between mind, body and soul for happier and longer life.
Basic principle of Ayurveda says that everything in this world is poised of five basic elements even a human body, these are Prithvi (earth), Akash (space), Vayu (air), Agni (fire) and Jal (water). These five basic elements of universe mix with each other in countless varieties of magnitude to form all living and non-living things in the world and their presence relative to each other in any material decides its chemical and physical properties.
In a human body, mouth, nostrils, internal ear etc denotes Akash, nervous, muscular system and movements denote Vayu, metabolism, digestion, intelligence etc denote Agni, saliva, digestive fluids etc denote Jal and bones, flesh, hair, teeth etc denote Prithvi. These five basic elements constantly change and interact with each other to create life flux in human body as well as in other living and non - living things which are apparent to us as growth or decay. Ayurveda basics say that under the influence of 'Triguna' - three properties, five elements in human body interact with each other and change themselves. These 'Triguna' are Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.
Human being under the influence of Sattva Guna is in supreme physical, mental and spiritual health with abundant positive energy. Human being under Rajas Guna is changing, his internal system is rearranging either for good or bad. Under Tamas Guna human being is full of negativity, poor physical, mental and spiritual health, in easy language, sick. According to principles of Ayurveda 'Karma' or deeds decide shifting of influence of one Guna to another. Karma comprise of lifestyle, thoughts, daily routine, surroundings, eating habits, diet and genetics. Sat-Karma or good deeds or healthy deeds lead to intense influence of Sattva Guna, Dush-Karma or bad deeds or unhealthy habits lead first to the Rajas-Guna and later to Tamas-Guna.
According to principles of Ayurveda with the influence of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas Guna the five basic elements and their interaction give rise to changes in Tridosha, Dhatus and Malas and form Prakriti of the body. Ayurvedic principles describe 16 types of Prakriti out of which 7 are Sattvik, 6 Rajasik and 3 Tamasik. Tridosha as name suggests are three humors and these are Vata (wind), Pitta (bile) and Kapha (phlegm); Dhatu is tissues of the body which are divided into seven categories - Rasa, Rakta, Mansa, Meda, Asthi, Majja and Shukra; and Mala are three main waste products - Mutra, Purish and Sweda.
The main basic principle of Ayurvedic treatment is to change Prakriti of the body to Sattvik. By using herbs, herbal treatments and Yoga Dosha or problem is removed and cured related to Tridosha, Dhatu and Mala, and also, these methods are used to remove all the ill-effects caused due to presence of Dosha, remove Dush-Karma by abstinence and promote sound physical, mental and spiritual health.